Spreading Of HIV Captured By Scientists In Real Time
In today’s world the scientists have researched a lot about the HIV infection and are well aware of its different aspects such as HIV transmission, HIV life cycle, HIV testing, HIV prevention etc. Despite of gaining so much knowledge about the HIV infection the scientists were still not aware about how did the virus actually spread in a human body? But this question remained unanswered till now only. Finally a group of researcher from Yale University found out an answer to this query.
This group of researchers began a study that recorded the virus spreading and affecting the lymph nodes in a mouse so that it becomes more clear how the virus spreads and infects the various parts of the body. The basic aim of this study was to find out an answer to the above mentioned query and then research on how it can be prevented from happening in the future based on the findings of the study.
The study revealed that HIV infects the body by mainly targeting the immune system and killing the T-Cells commonly referred to as white cells of the body which essential to fight the microbes entering in the body. Normally, the immune system of the body is highly connected with the lymphatic system of the body and due to this the HIV virus concentrates to attack heavily on the lymphatic system as well.
While conducting this study the researchers tagged the HIV virus with fluorescent markers and then they injected the HIV virus into the body of the mice. The researchers used an highly advanced imaging technique which is known as Two Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy. This particular techniques allows a person to see 1 millimeter deep in an organism’s body. Afterwards, they carefully studied the movement of the virus inside the body in order to determine how did the virus spread.
They results were kind of surprising for the researchers. It was found out that the virus uses a protein to bind to macrophages. You can see this process yourself with the help of this video in which the virus is stained green in color:
After that we observe that the virus adjoins to B Cells which is another kind white blood cell that is unique to lymph tissue. The role of these cells is to form antibodies and act as a carrier between the inner and outer parts of the lymph nodes. Since the virus attacks the B Cells so the body is unable to produce antibodies and the body is not able to fight back the virus. It was also discovered that the B Cells that got infected moved pretty slowly within the lymph nodes and within a few days the HIV virus that were attached to the B Cells now infected most of the internal part of the lymph nodes. This allowed them to destroy the T-Cells which in turn allowed them to spread out to the whole body.
The study overall was a great success in terms of Research and Development in the sector of HIV infection and based on the findings and some more research it is expected that the researchers will be able to find out a way to stop the spreading of the HIV infection in the body in the near future.